"C’est injustice de voir qu’un père vieux, cassé et demi - mort jouisse seul, à un coin du foyer, des biens qui suffiraient à l’avancement et entretien de plusieurs enfants, et qu’il les laisse cependant, par faute de moyens, perdre leurs meilleures années sans se pousser au service public et connaissance des hommes." Les Essais II, Montaigne

Le Réseau EIDLL "Économie Internationale de la Longévité", créé en 2018, regroupe 26 centres de recherche et 4 institutions affiliées en économie du vieillissement pour contribuer au développement de la recherche et des échanges sur le sujet.

Plus d'informations : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll

"It is unjust to see an aged father, broken (or in his dotage) and only half alive, stuck in his chimney-corner with the absolute possession of enough wealth to help and maintain several children, allowing them all this time to waste their best years without means of advancement in the public service and of making themselves better known." Les Essais II, Montaigne

The "International Longevity Economics" (EIDLL) Network was created in 2018. It gathers 26 research centres and 4 affiliated institutions in ageing econoomics. Its aim is to favour exchanges and foster research on ageing economics.

More at : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll


December 4, 2020

Debates & News

Call for papers from Gérontologies et Sociétés on "Inclusive society: discourses, practices and controversies" is open until December 14, 2020.


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4th AMSE - Banque de France Macroeconomics Workshop on December, 15th.


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Annual event My Silver Valley on December 3rd, 6pm 8pm on videoconference.


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Morning event of Assurance Retraite Ile-de-France CNAV and Silver Vally "Retirees=Weakness, really?" on Tuesday, December 1rst at 9h30 AM.


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Symposium "Gender in research: evaluation and production of knowledge" on 15 December 2020 organized by Gender-SMART, CIRAD and ANR. 


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The Cercle des Economistes launches the debate on December 10 "How to avoid a sacrificed generation?" in Toulouse and online.


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Call for papers for the conference "Transforming care" which will take place on 24th and 26th of June, 2021. The call for papers is open until January 31rst, 2021.


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The 42nd Journées des Economistes de la Santé will take place from 2 to 4 December 2020 by videoconference.


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The Institut Fédératif d'Etudes et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires Santé Société (IFERISS) is launching a series of webinars on "The Making of Social Inequalities in Health": opening on November 27, 2020 and webinars from December 10, 2020 to January 28, 2021. 


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The annual conference of the Chair of Women and Science will focus on "Women in Science: why is it a necessity" and will take place on December 1st at 2:30 pm. 


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The National Platform for End-of-Life Research and the Institute for Longevity, Aging and Aging (ILVV) are organizing virtual seminars on aging and end-of-life every Thursday from 12:30 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. from January 7 to February 18, 2021.


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Launch of OECD Centre on Well-being, Inclusion, Sustainability and Equal Opportunity (WISE) on November 25th, 2 p.m


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Call for papers from the journal Gérontologie et Sociétés on "Elder abuse : definitions, public action and experiences of stakeholders". Submission deadline : June 1st, 2021.


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The EIDLL Network and the Chair "Demographic Transitions, Economic Transitions" (TDTE) are organizing their annual symposium on the economics of aging on December 14, 2020 in Paris and in webinar. It will focus on the theme "Ageing Society, Well-being and Growth". 


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The 1st Care-givers' meeting will take place on October 6, 2020 from 2 to 7 p.m. at the Maison de l'Artisanat in Paris. 


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The Rencontres sur le système de santé will take place on November 3, 2020, online, from 9:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on the theme "Building a more modern, more resilient, more innovative system!"


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The major debate "How to face the challenges of loss of autonomy ?" organized by the TDTE Chair will take place on Wednesday, September 30th, 2020 from 5:00 pm and will be broadcast live. 


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Series of seminars: "At the foundation of a policy of autonomy: the 5th branch, what for?" organized by LISA (Laboratoire d'Idées Santé Autonomie) in partnership with the Institut Droit et Santé (University of Paris). Third web conference session on the theme of "Financing" on July 8, 2020, from 6.30 pm to 8.30 pm.


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Books, Articles & Working Papers

Publication of André Masson's book "Nos sociétés du vieillissement entre guerre et paix - Plaidoyer pour une solidarité de combat" (Our aging societies between war and peace - A plea for combat solidarity) published by the humanities publisher L'autreface. In this book, André Masson attempts to respond to the imbalance of heritage, transfer, of our aging societies and the underlying intergenerational conflicts. The researcher proposes measures to weave new solidarities between the young and the old. 


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The 1172nd issue of the Studies & Results of the DREES, written by Miron de l'Espinay and Roy, deals with "Loss of autonomy: with unchanged practices, 108,000 more seniors would be expected in EHPAD by 2030". This issue makes projections of the elderly population in loss of autonomy according to the LIVIA model (Lieux de vie et autonomie). It notes that according to its projections, it would be necessary to double the rate of opening places to accommodate 108,000 elderly people in Ehpad by 2030

However, promoting home care could avoid opening as many new places. But this will require the postponement to other places of residences such as service residences. 

The researchers estimate that if life expectancy without loss of autonomy evolves in the same way as life expectancy, the current rate of opening of places in Ehpad would be sufficient to accommodate seniors with loss of autonomy between 2020 and 2050


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The 2020 annual report of the Conseil d'Orientation des Retraites "Evolutions et perspectives des retraites en France" has been published. It includes an initial assessment of the effects of the crisis on the short-term pension system. It also assesses generational equity with regard to retirement. It would appear that younger generations will be more penalized than the generations currently retiring; the contribution rate will be higher and the average pension will be lower. However, the length of working life will be lower as a proportion of their total life expectancy and therefore the length of retirement (as a proportion of total life expectancy) will be greater given the gains in life expectancy. 


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Issue 397 of Céreq Bref published an article by Cadet, Delanoë and Guitton "Intermediate professions in companies: the reasons for a surge in diplomas". Over the last 25 years, they note an increase in the number of diplomas for intermediate professions in companies. This effect can be explained by the general increase in education and the doubling of the share of higher education graduates in this job category. IPCs concern jobs that are increasingly in the tertiary sector, and IPCs have become more feminized and concern populations that are less aging than other socio-professional categories. IPCs have also become more complex and require a mix of professional and interpersonal skills and professional qualities that favor the hiring of qualified young people with a bachelor level. 


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Blanchflower and Graham published an article on NBER on happiness and aging in the United States. They analyze different sources of data in the US and show that there is a peak in suicide and chronic depression around the age of 50, but this effect can vary according to individual characteristics (married or unmarried) and they deepen the relationship between happiness and aging. These studies can be applied to the vast majority of the world's population and should attract the attention of researchers and policy makers.


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Bell and Banchflower published an article on NBER estimating that there is a U-shaped happiness curve in Scotland. Using Scottish data from the UK Health Survey and annual population surveys, the authors find that the happiness curve is U-shaped with a low point reached around the age of 50. Fruit and vegetable consumption contributes significantly to the happiness of Scottish people. They also find a peak in suicides around the age of 50. Despite higher suicide and mortality rates, the Scottish are happier than the English. The authors also find U-shaped curves of happiness in other UK countries. 


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Lochner and Park published a recent paper on NBER on income dynamics and intergenerational skills transfers. Using 37 years of Canadian tax data, the researchers find that intergenerational income elasticities are low and estimate that there is a high degree of heterogeneity in initial skills and the rate of skill growth such that intergenerational transmission of skills explains 40% of the rate of skill change among children. Skills are an important determinant of earnings during the early part of workers' careers. The intergenerational transmission of skills becomes less important with age.


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Céreq has published a dossier "Apprenticeship in Germany and facing its challenges" in its issue Formation et Emploi. This dossier studies the apprenticeship system in Germany and France and its impact on professional careers. The numerous contributions of German and French experts allow to compare the systems, to study the quality of the training carried out in companies, the role of the apprenticeship masters or the learning of soft and social skills. In particular, the dossier highlights two results: 1. in France, being trained as an apprentice is an advantage for entering the job market, especially for secondary education, more so than it is in Germany. 2. for young French people, completing dual training in German companies does not turn out to be that much of an advantage. 


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Caisse des Dépôts published its 31st issue of Questions Retraite & Solidarité, which assesses the effect of increases in age limits and insurance duration on the retirement age, making it possible to evaluate the reforms carried out over the last twenty years. They then show that incentive measures have a weak impact on the retirement age of the generations born between 1949 and 1953, while restrictive measures have a greater impact. 


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The OECD has published its annual report "Health at a glance: Europe 2020", which examines how European countries have been affected by the pandemic and how they have coped with it. According to the OECD, it is essential to better detect, track and isolate cases. The pandemic has also revealed the shortages of health workers and insufficient capacity that are crucial for adapting to a pandemic. The OECD advocates addressing other health risk factors, such as air pollution. 


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Senik published a recent article on Girls and Science: News from the East. The wage gap between men and women is due to two factors: 1. Occupational segregation: women avoid science in school and at work, whereas they are associated with higher paying occupations. 2. the integration of women into the labor market, where women are more likely to adapt their schedules to the presence of children.

The institutions in the Eastern socialist bloc have favored the teaching of science to young girls: priority to science, generalization of women's work. This heritage has even remained anchored in the descendants of Russian immigrants in Israel. In 1990, a thousand Russians migrated to Israel. 

The author assesses the education and entry into the labor market of women born in Russia or Israel and living and having been educated in Israel. She finds that young women with a migration background from the former Soviet Union are more likely to go into scientific fields both in school and on the labor market, and favour gainful occupations and long careers. She finds that the higher the proportion of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in secondary schools, the more likely young native Israeli women are to choose scientific fields and are less likely to opt for "pink-collar" professions (teaching, social work). 

The author believes that the orientation choices of immigrant girls are not influenced by the choices of native Israeli women, suggesting that once the stereotype is lifted, it is no longer possible to return to traditional beliefs and preferences



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Bosi, Camacho and Desmarchelier studied the relationship between human capital and well-being. They find that economic research has often neglected the impact of human capital on well-being. The researchers define a model where the new consumer good is a good composed of household consumption and human capital - the HDI. They deduce that to maximize well-being, households must increase consumption and human capital at equal rates. If they realize that the HDI will be high in the short run, as investment in human capital - education - remains low, long-term human capital will tend to decline. Ultimately, the more households derive satisfaction from their consumption, the less economic growth will be significant. 



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Apouey, Guven, and Senik published an article on the effect of retirement on health shocks. Using Australian data (HILDA), they propose an innovative method to study the relationship between retirement and health. They analyze health shocks; when expectations are different from the observed health status in the future. Retirement leads to an increase in positive health shocks and a decrease in negative shocks. This effect is observed for women and men and different social categories. This work could suggest that retirement has a beneficial effect on the health and well-being of individuals.


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Maclean, Mallatt, Ruhm and Simon published an article on the NBER conducting a review of economic studies of the opioid crisis in the United States from 1990 to the present. In 2018, every day, 128 Americans died from opioid overdose and the total cost of misprescribing opioids is $500 billion each year. 

Economic studies have shown that the origins of the crisis lie in supply and demand factors and the interaction between these two components. Studies show that regulations could reduce opioid prescriptions but may have perverse effects, including the use of more harmful substances obtained from the black market. Treatments exist to reduce opioid dependence, but many factors continue to underutilize them (access, stigma, cost). 

More work needs to be done to understand how policies and regulations can reduce opioid dependence. 


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Helliwell, Gyarmati, Joyce and Orpana published an article on NBER on the epidemiology of happiness. They show how the use of well-being can be and is already used as an indicator in public policy. The arrival of Covid-29 shows the urgency of placing well-being at the heart of political decisions. An interest in the measurement of subjective well-being must be restored within policies and economic fundamentals to restore the initial objective of economics, that of using happiness as the central objective of public policies




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The OECD has just released a special feature "Pension markets in focus" on retirement savings. Retirement savings in pension funds, pension insurance and other contracts exceeded $50 trillion worldwide for the first time in 2019 and $49.2 trillion in OECD countries alone. This dossier assesses the evolution of the value of assets during the year 2020 and estimates the financing of defined benefit plans over the year 2020. 


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Find the proceedings of the 22nd annual meeting of the Retirement and Disability Research Consortium held on August 6, 2020


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In a NBER article, Chandra, Coile and Mommaerts studied the role of economics on Alzheimer's research. Beyond certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease such as cognitive decline, economists can contribute to Alzheimer's research on many topics: drug development, care delivery, long-term care risks, ... These topics cut across many areas of economics - labour economics, health economics, public economics, experimental economics, and family economics. Economists therefore still have much to contribute to Alzheimer's research.


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O'Dea and Sturrock, in a NBER article, study the "annuity puzzle" which refers to the fact that annuities are rarely purchased despite the fact that they provide longevity insurance. The explanation lies in the fact that individuals have a poor perception of their mortality risk. Subjective expectations in terms of longevity, significantly different from the survival probabilities measured by insurers, explain the low use and purchase of annuities.


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The Caisse des Dépôts published a report on "Homecare: towards digital service platforms", which identified 13 long-term care facility initiatives. They propose a reinforcement of services in favour of home care for elderly people in loss of autonomy. This report questions the organizational models and carries out an international benchmark on the profession of care manager. 


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The Chair "Transitions démographiques, Transitions économiques" has published its booklet on "the socialized activities of seniors". This booklet proposes a cultural revolution: a society of active aging through the concept of socialized activities. Socialized activities refer to "any social activity, somewhat constraining, of general interest and not necessarily remunerated" that would guarantee a high level of well-being to the senior citizen. This dimension materializes, among other things, through volunteering and participation in social life, intergenerational and intragenerational solidarity.

This booklet presents three articles to define socialized activities and evaluate the benefits for seniors of a socialized commitment. Then to estimate the macroeconomic and microeconomic benefits of such activities. Finally, this booklet proposes a set of policy recommendations to accompany today's society towards an active ageing society.


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In an NBER article, Duggan, Shah Goda and Li study the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage for people aged 60-64. They show that the introduction of this measure increased people's health insurance coverage by about 4.5 percentage points and reduced their labour force participation rate by about 0.6 percentage points.


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In a NBER publication, Dinerstein, Megalokonomou and Yannelis estimate the depreciation of human capital. Using Greek administrative data, they show that if a student spends one year of his or her time without formal training or employment, it lowers his or her test scores by 0.09 standard deviation, which would result in a skill depreciation rate of 4.3%


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In a NBER publication, Cronin and Evans study the relationship between the quality of retirement homes in the United States and the excess mortality of residents due to Covid-19. They find that higher quality nursing homes have a significantly lower Covid-related mortality rate because they have been successful in preventing the spread of the virus. However, in areas where the spread of the virus is low, they observe that the non-Covid mortality rate is significantly higher in the better quality retirement homes. Therefore, this study suggests different policies of establishment, such as allowing visits of relatives, in low-risk areas. 


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In an NBER publication, Hudomiet, Hurd and Rohwedder study the paradox of well-being, i.e. the fact that well-being increases after the age of 65. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, they observe that life satisfaction declines with age. Widowhood and health shocks play a key role in this decline. 


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ILVV (Institut de la longévité, des vieillesses et du vieillissement) focused in its June 2020 edition of the "Research on Aging Newsletter", produced in collaboration with the Cnav, on the theme of Aging with HIV.


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