"C’est injustice de voir qu’un père vieux, cassé et demi - mort jouisse seul, à un coin du foyer, des biens qui suffiraient à l’avancement et entretien de plusieurs enfants, et qu’il les laisse cependant, par faute de moyens, perdre leurs meilleures années sans se pousser au service public et connaissance des hommes." Les Essais II, Montaigne

Le Réseau EIDLL "Économie Internationale de la Longévité", créé en 2018, regroupe 26 centres de recherche et 4 institutions affiliées en économie du vieillissement pour contribuer au développement de la recherche et des échanges sur le sujet.

Plus d'informations : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll

"It is unjust to see an aged father, broken (or in his dotage) and only half alive, stuck in his chimney-corner with the absolute possession of enough wealth to help and maintain several children, allowing them all this time to waste their best years without means of advancement in the public service and of making themselves better known." Les Essais II, Montaigne

The "International Longevity Economics" (EIDLL) Network was created in 2018. It gathers 26 research centres and 4 affiliated institutions in ageing econoomics. Its aim is to favour exchanges and foster research on ageing economics.

More at : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll


March 7, 2021

Debates & News

14th Cancer Meeting of MM Conseil on March 23, 2021 on the theme "For patients, let's mobilize".


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Launch on March 25, 2021 of the OECD report "How was life? New perspectives on historical global inequality". 


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14th Financial Risk Forum on 25 and 26 March 2021 on the theme "Fintechs & Covid-19, Learning from a pandemic crisis" organized by ILB, IEF and FDR. 


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LEDa's open days in the context of the recruitment of two lecturers on March 29th and April 2nd 


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The PANORisk Network and the IUF are organizing "Risk Week" from November 15 to 19, 2021. The event is composed of two conferences: the PANORisk closing conference and the IUF conference. For the IUF conference, a call for papers has been launched and will close on 30 April 2021. 


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Open application for OECD Youthwise, a channel for young people to have their say on OECD work. Application by 5 March, 2021.


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Call for research projects 2021 of the Chair of Women and Science on the theme of the role and place of women in the natural sciences. Deadline for submission of applications: April 30, 2021


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Brigitte Bourguignon, DGCS and CNSA create a strategic committee to fight isolation of the elderly on February 15, 2021. 


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E-matinal March 3rd, 2021 "La feuille de paye et le caddie" organized by the Institut Louis Bachelier and the Chaire Sécurisation des Parcours Professionnels will present the work of Lionel Fontagné. 


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Call for papers on "The production of social health inequalities" of the Revue française des affaires sociales. Articles expected before March 29, 2021. 


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A public consultation was launched by the European Commission on demographic ageing, following the publication of its book on ageing. It is open until 21 April 2021. 


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LEM - MOF- ADP distance seminar of Andreas Landmann who will present his paper "Gender Aspects in Low-Income Health Insurance: Evidence from Pakistan" on Tuesday, February 23, 2021. 


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ANR launches a Covid-19 Resilience Call for Proposals until March 2, 2021 to fund urgent research projects in decision support and epidemic control. 


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Launch of the EconomiX Youtube channel, which gives an overview of the research and analyses carried out by the EconomiX laboratory. 


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Joint call for project "Intergenerational Equality and Well-Being" launched by an intergovernmental and pan-European initiative "More Years Better Life". 


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Creation of a new research chair "Educational Policies and Social Mobility" by the Ardian Foundation, DEPP and PSE. 


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The CEPREMAP Well-being Observatory is organizing a conference on February 8, 2021 following the publication of its new book "Le bien-être en France - Rapport 2020". 


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The 2021 International Conference on Development Economics of DIAL, GREThA and LAREFI will take place on June 30, 2021, July 1 and 2, 2021 in Bordeaux and online. 


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Call for papers from Gérontologies et Sociétés on "Inclusive society: discourses, practices and controversies" is open until December 14, 2020.


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4th AMSE - Banque de France Macroeconomics Workshop on December, 15th.


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Annual event My Silver Valley on December 3rd, 6pm 8pm on videoconference.


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Morning event of Assurance Retraite Ile-de-France CNAV and Silver Vally "Retirees=Weakness, really?" on Tuesday, December 1rst at 9h30 AM.


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Symposium "Gender in research: evaluation and production of knowledge" on 15 December 2020 organized by Gender-SMART, CIRAD and ANR. 


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The Cercle des Economistes launches the debate on December 10 "How to avoid a sacrificed generation?" in Toulouse and online.


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Call for papers for the conference "Transforming care" which will take place on 24th and 26th of June, 2021. The call for papers is open until January 31rst, 2021.


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The 42nd Journées des Economistes de la Santé will take place from 2 to 4 December 2020 by videoconference.


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The Institut Fédératif d'Etudes et de Recherches Interdisciplinaires Santé Société (IFERISS) is launching a series of webinars on "The Making of Social Inequalities in Health": opening on November 27, 2020 and webinars from December 10, 2020 to January 28, 2021. 


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The annual conference of the Chair of Women and Science will focus on "Women in Science: why is it a necessity" and will take place on December 1st at 2:30 pm. 


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The National Platform for End-of-Life Research and the Institute for Longevity, Aging and Aging (ILVV) are organizing virtual seminars on aging and end-of-life every Thursday from 12:30 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. from January 7 to February 18, 2021.


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Launch of OECD Centre on Well-being, Inclusion, Sustainability and Equal Opportunity (WISE) on November 25th, 2 p.m


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Call for papers from the journal Gérontologie et Sociétés on "Elder abuse : definitions, public action and experiences of stakeholders". Submission deadline : June 1st, 2021.


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The EIDLL Network and the Chair "Demographic Transitions, Economic Transitions" (TDTE) are organizing their annual symposium on the economics of aging on December 14, 2020 in Paris and in webinar. It will focus on the theme "Ageing Society, Well-being and Growth". 


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The 1st Care-givers' meeting will take place on October 6, 2020 from 2 to 7 p.m. at the Maison de l'Artisanat in Paris. 


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The Rencontres sur le système de santé will take place on November 3, 2020, online, from 9:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on the theme "Building a more modern, more resilient, more innovative system!"


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Books, Articles & Working Papers

The OECD has published recent statistics to compare the pension rights of OECD countries. Pension liabilities are higher in European countries than in non-European OECD countries. In addition, the private sector has a preference for defined contribution plans over defined benefit plans. 


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COR has published its monthly dossier "Inequalities and recent changes in life expectancy", a key indicator for projecting pension expenditure and comparing the length of retirement for different generations. This dossier discusses inequalities in life expectancy according to social level and the evolution of life expectancy over the last decade. In addition, the dossier deals with the impact of the health crisis on life expectancy; life expectancy has fallen by 5 months for women and 6 months for men from March 2020. Conversely, mortality among the under 50s has decreased slightly. The excess mortality in France during the 1st wave of Covid-19, was lower than in Spain, Italy or Belgium, but comparable to the European average. 


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Schaller and Eck analyze intergenerational financial and informal care transfers following a shock: loss of income, widowhood, health shocks. Following a health shock, parental donations to children decrease, whereas following widowhood, parental donations increase. Following negative income shocks, children from low-income households increase financial transfers to parents, and children from all backgrounds provide more informal care following a wide range of negative shocks. 


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Bianchi F., Bianchi G. and Song have studied the impact of the economic recession due to the health crisis on mortality and life expectancy in a NBER article. The authors estimate that the impact of the recession on unemployment will be 2 to 5 times greater than in past economic shocks, and ultimately the recession will increase mortality rates and decrease life expectancy. This crisis could thus lead to 0.8 million additional deaths in the next 15 years. 


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Mulligan published an article on NBER that looks at mortality over the year 2020, up to the first week of October 2020. From March onwards, excess mortality is estimated at 250,000 deaths. The author is interested in the number of non-covid excess deaths that may be due to despair, drugs, suicide or alcohol. Men aged between 15 and 55 years, especially the youngest 15-25 years, are the most concerned by these excess non covid deaths. The pandemic and recession have been associated with a 10-60% increase in deaths due to despair. 


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Fadlon, Plesner Lyngse and Heien Nielsen published an article in NBER on the impact of early labour market experiences on long-term careers. Using the context of the Danish physician labor market, they show that an unfavorable early career start has a long-term impact on women's careers but temporary disruptions in men's careers. These may be due to differences in family obligations, competitive attitudes and mentoring. 


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Lusardi, Mitchell and Oggero published an article in the NBER studying debt management among Americans between the ages of 51 and 61. Although this age group most often has a high level of savings, some older Americans have accumulated debt due to student loans, non-payment of health care costs and having children of school age. They show in this article that having financial education has a significant (negative) impact on having excessive debt and being contacted by debt collectors. People with financial education are also more likely to plan for retirement and save. 


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Grenet and Souidi published a study entitled "Multi-college sectors in Paris: what results after three years" in the 62nd IPP note, which evaluates the "multi-college sectors" experiment that has been set up in the city of Paris to promote greater social diversity. The results at the third year are positive, and the system has led to greater social diversity and a reduction in the number of people avoiding private schools. 


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An article by Gupta At., Howell, Yannelis and Gupta Ab. of NBER investigates the effects of ownership of private equity in health care services on the well-being of patients in retirement homes. Using difference-in-differences methods to compare retirement homes that are funded by private equity with those that are not, the authors show that privately PE nursing homes increase short-term patient mortality by 10%, or 20,150 lives lost over the past 20 years. Other measures of patient well-being decrease even as taxpayer spending increases by 11% for each patient. This is due to fewer nurses, and more expense items dedicated to monitoring, interest and rent. 


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The OECD WISE Centre (Well-being, Inclusion, Sustainability & Equal Opportunity) has published a report "Securing the Recovery, Ambition, and Resilience for the Well-being of Children in the post-Covid-19 decade". In this report, the authors describe the adverse impacts of the Covid health crisis on children's well-being; increased poverty and inequality, increased parental stress and anxiety, school closures and distance learning exacerbate inequalities among children resulting in deteriorating mental health and loneliness. In addition, the health crisis can have long-term effects on the schooling, health and well-being of the most vulnerable children. To combat these effects, the OECD proposes a five-pillar public policy framework: 1/ Systematize the assessment of child well-being, 2/ mobilize financial resources, 3/ establish a clear distribution of responsibilities between the different actors, 4/ ensure quality services for the most vulnerable children and 5/ ensure political commitment and goals in terms of child well-being. 


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The N°401 of Céreq Bref by Agostino, Fournier and Stephanus deals with "exploded employment, precariousness and training: getting out of the vicious circle". Split employment refers to a phenomenon where individuals accumulate different and discontinuous jobs over the same year. It can be durably precarious, particularly in certain sectors (tourism, hotels and restaurants, or associations). The use of training is still insufficient for these workers, whose sectors are moreover seriously affected by the health crisis. 


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Schwandt and von Wachter published an article in the IMF's Finance & Development magazine "The long shadow of an unlucky start" that shows the negative effects for young people of entering the labor market in times of crisis. The authors show that the 6.8 million young Americans entering the labor market could not benefit from nearly $400 billion in income because of the crisis. Governments must therefore invest in youth policies: job search assistance, incentives for part-time work, and wage subsidies for young entrants. 

Indeed, studies show that young people entering the labor market in times of crisis may experience episodes of unemployment, have lower self-confidence, commit more crime, and lack confidence in government. The poverty of these young entrants can also have effects on their health; they are more likely to have alcohol problems and to be obese. 

The negative effects of entering the labour market at the time of a crisis are spread throughout life. They estimate that the young generations of 2020 entering the labour market will have a life expectancy of 1 to 1.5 years less than the other generations. These adverse effects may thus have demographic effects; fewer marriages, a higher divorce rate and fewer children per woman. 


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Céreq Bref, No. 400, analyzes data from the Defis system to assess the career aspirations of young employees. All young employees value the quality of work in their professional aspirations. Five types of career aspirations emerged from the data: 1. for 31% of young employees, the desire to progress internally by blossoming in their work. 2. the desire to work in an environment where they are able to develop their skills. 2. for 16% of young employees, the desire to create their own job or company in order to become more independent and responsible. 3. for 16% of young employees, the desire to find a job commensurate with their qualifications and who are therefore dissatisfied with the work they do. 4. 22% of young employees want to prioritize a better work-life balance because of working conditions considered too restrictive. 5. 15% of young employees do not plan to change careers. 


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Blanchflower and Bryson published an article on the NBER "Job satisfaction over the life course" which examines the relationship between union membership and job satisfaction over the life course. They find that there is a negative correlation between union membership and job satisfaction. 


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The OECD published a booklet "Promoting an Age-Inclusive Workforce" which shows that with demographic ageing, the workforce in companies will be multi-generational and it is a great opportunity for companies to take advantage of this multi-skilled workforce. This report presents examples and policy recommendations for employers to develop an inclusive workforce; including recommendations in terms of recruitment, retirement policies, promotion of lifelong learning and occupational health prevention. 


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The OECD published its 2020 edition of the "Pensions Outlook" which examines possible public policies to improve the sustainability and resilience of pension systems. 


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Deshpande published an article on the NBER "How disability benefits in early life affect long-term outcomes" evaluating the "Supplemental Security Income" program that provides financial assistance to families of children with disabilities. It shows that removing this assistance from young people with disabilities, aged 18 years old, decreases resources for the family and penalizes siblings, who will have lower incomes as adults. 


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Duguet and Le Clainche published an article "The socioeconomic and gender impacts of health events on employment transitions in France: a panel data study". This study shows that life accidents have weaker effects on employment than chronic diseases but generate more inequalities between workers. Women and the least educated workers are the most disadvantaged and most go from work to inactivity. 


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The EconomiX laboratory publishes its newsletter which summarizes the research carried out by the teams and the next activities of the laboratory. 


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Céreq published n°399 of Le Céreq Bref reporting an "Insertion more difficult for young people who fail at the entrance to higher education". This study shows that young people who have failed their baccalaureate at university have a more difficult entry into the labor market with an unemployment rate of 24%. Failed high school graduates are more likely to return to school, but the propensity to persevere is very unequal according to the income of the high school graduate or his or her family. Vocational baccalaureate holders, who represent 62% of failed graduates, rarely return to school. 


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Altonji, Hynsjo and Vidangos published an article called "Marriage dynamics, earnings dynamics, and lifetime family income" that examines the determinants of family income for men and women. As a result, marital status has a much greater effect on family income for women than for men. While labour market shocks have larger effects on men's family income than women's. 


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Carta, D'Amuri, von Wachter have published an article on the NBER "Worforce Aging, pension reforms and firms outcome" which shows the impact of the retirement age shift on firms' inputs. An increase in the number of older workers would lead to an increase in the number of younger workers, higher value added and higher labor costs at unchanged productivity and unit costs. 


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The ILVV and the CNAV have distributed the 19th Newsletter on Research on Aging which presents the latest research on "Covid-19 and the elderly" and in particular the studies, surveys and research in progress in the human and social sciences on the impact of the health crisis on the lives of the elderly. 


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Gérond'if has published the results of the Confidences survey "Confinement of retirees at home during covid-19", which analysed the impact of confinement on elderly people living at home in the Ile-de-France region. This qualitative and quantitative study showed that retirees showed great adaptability during confinement, that they were afraid that the pandemic would leave a pejorative image for the elderly and that they found themselves more destabilized by deconfinement.


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Bertrand, Drouhet and Fall of the Caisse des Dépôts published a study on the creation of two indicators that ensure the neutrality of the search engine of "Mon Compte Formation", which ensures neutrality between training organizations. Today Mon Compte Formation records 1 million searches per day. 


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The European Commission published a Green Paper on Ageing "Promoting solidarity and responsibility between generations" in January 2021. Demographic ageing is inevitable in Europe; 30% of the European population will be over 65 years old in 2070. The Green Paper presents the extent of the phenomenon of demographic ageing in Europe and the consequences it will have on the labour market, lifelong skills, health policies, public spending, quality of life and access to infrastructure and services for the elderly. 


The European Commission is launching a debate on the actions to be taken to accompany demographic ageing. At the end of the debate, it will present a series of measures to address the challenges of ageing.


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The alliance for skills patronage has published the results of the 2nd skills patronage barometer. Skills patronage has grown significantly in recent years and the 2nd barometer shows the extent of this phenomenon: 9% of French companies are committed to serving the general interest, a number multiplied by 4 over the last 10 years. 


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Publication of André Masson's book "Nos sociétés du vieillissement entre guerre et paix - Plaidoyer pour une solidarité de combat" (Our aging societies between war and peace - A plea for combat solidarity) published by the humanities publisher L'autreface. In this book, André Masson attempts to respond to the imbalance of heritage, transfer, of our aging societies and the underlying intergenerational conflicts. The researcher proposes measures to weave new solidarities between the young and the old. 


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The 1172nd issue of the Studies & Results of the DREES, written by Miron de l'Espinay and Roy, deals with "Loss of autonomy: with unchanged practices, 108,000 more seniors would be expected in EHPAD by 2030". This issue makes projections of the elderly population in loss of autonomy according to the LIVIA model (Lieux de vie et autonomie). It notes that according to its projections, it would be necessary to double the rate of opening places to accommodate 108,000 elderly people in Ehpad by 2030

However, promoting home care could avoid opening as many new places. But this will require the postponement to other places of residences such as service residences. 

The researchers estimate that if life expectancy without loss of autonomy evolves in the same way as life expectancy, the current rate of opening of places in Ehpad would be sufficient to accommodate seniors with loss of autonomy between 2020 and 2050


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The 2020 annual report of the Conseil d'Orientation des Retraites "Evolutions et perspectives des retraites en France" has been published. It includes an initial assessment of the effects of the crisis on the short-term pension system. It also assesses generational equity with regard to retirement. It would appear that younger generations will be more penalized than the generations currently retiring; the contribution rate will be higher and the average pension will be lower. However, the length of working life will be lower as a proportion of their total life expectancy and therefore the length of retirement (as a proportion of total life expectancy) will be greater given the gains in life expectancy. 


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Issue 397 of Céreq Bref published an article by Cadet, Delanoë and Guitton "Intermediate professions in companies: the reasons for a surge in diplomas". Over the last 25 years, they note an increase in the number of diplomas for intermediate professions in companies. This effect can be explained by the general increase in education and the doubling of the share of higher education graduates in this job category. IPCs concern jobs that are increasingly in the tertiary sector, and IPCs have become more feminized and concern populations that are less aging than other socio-professional categories. IPCs have also become more complex and require a mix of professional and interpersonal skills and professional qualities that favor the hiring of qualified young people with a bachelor level. 


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Blanchflower and Graham published an article on NBER on happiness and aging in the United States. They analyze different sources of data in the US and show that there is a peak in suicide and chronic depression around the age of 50, but this effect can vary according to individual characteristics (married or unmarried) and they deepen the relationship between happiness and aging. These studies can be applied to the vast majority of the world's population and should attract the attention of researchers and policy makers.


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Bell and Banchflower published an article on NBER estimating that there is a U-shaped happiness curve in Scotland. Using Scottish data from the UK Health Survey and annual population surveys, the authors find that the happiness curve is U-shaped with a low point reached around the age of 50. Fruit and vegetable consumption contributes significantly to the happiness of Scottish people. They also find a peak in suicides around the age of 50. Despite higher suicide and mortality rates, the Scottish are happier than the English. The authors also find U-shaped curves of happiness in other UK countries. 


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Lochner and Park published a recent paper on NBER on income dynamics and intergenerational skills transfers. Using 37 years of Canadian tax data, the researchers find that intergenerational income elasticities are low and estimate that there is a high degree of heterogeneity in initial skills and the rate of skill growth such that intergenerational transmission of skills explains 40% of the rate of skill change among children. Skills are an important determinant of earnings during the early part of workers' careers. The intergenerational transmission of skills becomes less important with age.


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Céreq has published a dossier "Apprenticeship in Germany and facing its challenges" in its issue Formation et Emploi. This dossier studies the apprenticeship system in Germany and France and its impact on professional careers. The numerous contributions of German and French experts allow to compare the systems, to study the quality of the training carried out in companies, the role of the apprenticeship masters or the learning of soft and social skills. In particular, the dossier highlights two results: 1. in France, being trained as an apprentice is an advantage for entering the job market, especially for secondary education, more so than it is in Germany. 2. for young French people, completing dual training in German companies does not turn out to be that much of an advantage. 


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Caisse des Dépôts published its 31st issue of Questions Retraite & Solidarité, which assesses the effect of increases in age limits and insurance duration on the retirement age, making it possible to evaluate the reforms carried out over the last twenty years. They then show that incentive measures have a weak impact on the retirement age of the generations born between 1949 and 1953, while restrictive measures have a greater impact. 


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The OECD has published its annual report "Health at a glance: Europe 2020", which examines how European countries have been affected by the pandemic and how they have coped with it. According to the OECD, it is essential to better detect, track and isolate cases. The pandemic has also revealed the shortages of health workers and insufficient capacity that are crucial for adapting to a pandemic. The OECD advocates addressing other health risk factors, such as air pollution. 


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Senik published a recent article on Girls and Science: News from the East. The wage gap between men and women is due to two factors: 1. Occupational segregation: women avoid science in school and at work, whereas they are associated with higher paying occupations. 2. the integration of women into the labor market, where women are more likely to adapt their schedules to the presence of children.

The institutions in the Eastern socialist bloc have favored the teaching of science to young girls: priority to science, generalization of women's work. This heritage has even remained anchored in the descendants of Russian immigrants in Israel. In 1990, a thousand Russians migrated to Israel. 

The author assesses the education and entry into the labor market of women born in Russia or Israel and living and having been educated in Israel. She finds that young women with a migration background from the former Soviet Union are more likely to go into scientific fields both in school and on the labor market, and favour gainful occupations and long careers. She finds that the higher the proportion of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in secondary schools, the more likely young native Israeli women are to choose scientific fields and are less likely to opt for "pink-collar" professions (teaching, social work). 

The author believes that the orientation choices of immigrant girls are not influenced by the choices of native Israeli women, suggesting that once the stereotype is lifted, it is no longer possible to return to traditional beliefs and preferences



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Bosi, Camacho and Desmarchelier studied the relationship between human capital and well-being. They find that economic research has often neglected the impact of human capital on well-being. The researchers define a model where the new consumer good is a good composed of household consumption and human capital - the HDI. They deduce that to maximize well-being, households must increase consumption and human capital at equal rates. If they realize that the HDI will be high in the short run, as investment in human capital - education - remains low, long-term human capital will tend to decline. Ultimately, the more households derive satisfaction from their consumption, the less economic growth will be significant. 



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Apouey, Guven, and Senik published an article on the effect of retirement on health shocks. Using Australian data (HILDA), they propose an innovative method to study the relationship between retirement and health. They analyze health shocks; when expectations are different from the observed health status in the future. Retirement leads to an increase in positive health shocks and a decrease in negative shocks. This effect is observed for women and men and different social categories. This work could suggest that retirement has a beneficial effect on the health and well-being of individuals.


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Maclean, Mallatt, Ruhm and Simon published an article on the NBER conducting a review of economic studies of the opioid crisis in the United States from 1990 to the present. In 2018, every day, 128 Americans died from opioid overdose and the total cost of misprescribing opioids is $500 billion each year. 

Economic studies have shown that the origins of the crisis lie in supply and demand factors and the interaction between these two components. Studies show that regulations could reduce opioid prescriptions but may have perverse effects, including the use of more harmful substances obtained from the black market. Treatments exist to reduce opioid dependence, but many factors continue to underutilize them (access, stigma, cost). 

More work needs to be done to understand how policies and regulations can reduce opioid dependence. 


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Helliwell, Gyarmati, Joyce and Orpana published an article on NBER on the epidemiology of happiness. They show how the use of well-being can be and is already used as an indicator in public policy. The arrival of Covid-29 shows the urgency of placing well-being at the heart of political decisions. An interest in the measurement of subjective well-being must be restored within policies and economic fundamentals to restore the initial objective of economics, that of using happiness as the central objective of public policies




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The OECD has just released a special feature "Pension markets in focus" on retirement savings. Retirement savings in pension funds, pension insurance and other contracts exceeded $50 trillion worldwide for the first time in 2019 and $49.2 trillion in OECD countries alone. This dossier assesses the evolution of the value of assets during the year 2020 and estimates the financing of defined benefit plans over the year 2020. 


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Find the proceedings of the 22nd annual meeting of the Retirement and Disability Research Consortium held on August 6, 2020


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In a NBER article, Chandra, Coile and Mommaerts studied the role of economics on Alzheimer's research. Beyond certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease such as cognitive decline, economists can contribute to Alzheimer's research on many topics: drug development, care delivery, long-term care risks, ... These topics cut across many areas of economics - labour economics, health economics, public economics, experimental economics, and family economics. Economists therefore still have much to contribute to Alzheimer's research.


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O'Dea and Sturrock, in a NBER article, study the "annuity puzzle" which refers to the fact that annuities are rarely purchased despite the fact that they provide longevity insurance. The explanation lies in the fact that individuals have a poor perception of their mortality risk. Subjective expectations in terms of longevity, significantly different from the survival probabilities measured by insurers, explain the low use and purchase of annuities.


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The Caisse des Dépôts published a report on "Homecare: towards digital service platforms", which identified 13 long-term care facility initiatives. They propose a reinforcement of services in favour of home care for elderly people in loss of autonomy. This report questions the organizational models and carries out an international benchmark on the profession of care manager. 


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The Chair "Transitions démographiques, Transitions économiques" has published its booklet on "the socialized activities of seniors". This booklet proposes a cultural revolution: a society of active aging through the concept of socialized activities. Socialized activities refer to "any social activity, somewhat constraining, of general interest and not necessarily remunerated" that would guarantee a high level of well-being to the senior citizen. This dimension materializes, among other things, through volunteering and participation in social life, intergenerational and intragenerational solidarity.

This booklet presents three articles to define socialized activities and evaluate the benefits for seniors of a socialized commitment. Then to estimate the macroeconomic and microeconomic benefits of such activities. Finally, this booklet proposes a set of policy recommendations to accompany today's society towards an active ageing society.


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In an NBER article, Duggan, Shah Goda and Li study the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage for people aged 60-64. They show that the introduction of this measure increased people's health insurance coverage by about 4.5 percentage points and reduced their labour force participation rate by about 0.6 percentage points.


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In a NBER publication, Dinerstein, Megalokonomou and Yannelis estimate the depreciation of human capital. Using Greek administrative data, they show that if a student spends one year of his or her time without formal training or employment, it lowers his or her test scores by 0.09 standard deviation, which would result in a skill depreciation rate of 4.3%


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In a NBER publication, Cronin and Evans study the relationship between the quality of retirement homes in the United States and the excess mortality of residents due to Covid-19. They find that higher quality nursing homes have a significantly lower Covid-related mortality rate because they have been successful in preventing the spread of the virus. However, in areas where the spread of the virus is low, they observe that the non-Covid mortality rate is significantly higher in the better quality retirement homes. Therefore, this study suggests different policies of establishment, such as allowing visits of relatives, in low-risk areas. 


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In an NBER publication, Hudomiet, Hurd and Rohwedder study the paradox of well-being, i.e. the fact that well-being increases after the age of 65. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, they observe that life satisfaction declines with age. Widowhood and health shocks play a key role in this decline. 


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