"C’est injustice de voir qu’un père vieux, cassé et demi - mort jouisse seul, à un coin du foyer, des biens qui suffiraient à l’avancement et entretien de plusieurs enfants, et qu’il les laisse cependant, par faute de moyens, perdre leurs meilleures années sans se pousser au service public et connaissance des hommes." Les Essais II, Montaigne

Le Réseau EIDLL "Économie Internationale de la Longévité", créé en 2018, regroupe 26 centres de recherche et 4 institutions affiliées en économie du vieillissement pour contribuer au développement de la recherche et des échanges sur le sujet.

Plus d'informations : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll

"It is unjust to see an aged father, broken (or in his dotage) and only half alive, stuck in his chimney-corner with the absolute possession of enough wealth to help and maintain several children, allowing them all this time to waste their best years without means of advancement in the public service and of making themselves better known." Les Essais II, Montaigne

The "International Longevity Economics" (EIDLL) Network was created in 2018. It gathers 26 research centres and 4 affiliated institutions in ageing econoomics. Its aim is to favour exchanges and foster research on ageing economics.

More at : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll


January 23, 2022

Debates & News

Webinar "Is the politics of ageing creating conflict between generations?" hosted by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies on February 1, 2022 at 4:00 pm.


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Webinar "Can the costs of caring for an ageing population be controlled?" hosted by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies on January 25, 2022 at 12:00 pm.


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Conference at the University of Liechtenstein, Vaduz, on savings and pension finance in Europe on 29th August 2022. Call for papers open until 21st June 2022. 


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8th IRDES-Dauphine Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Public Policy Evaluation on 23 and 24 June 2022. Call for paper submission open until 31 January 2022. 


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HUMAN&GO is launching a call for projects from January 5 to 26, 2022, aimed at associations proposing a creative, supportive and socially useful project that targets people with disabilities, people with a loss of autonomy, sick or frail people or their caregivers.


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Webinar "Focus on the pioneers of Humanitude" with Annie de Vivie on January 7 at 11am


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The think tank Global Health 2030 is launching a call for applications for an 8-month fixed-term contract to carry out a study on the health professions of the future. 


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The Caisse nationale des Allocations familiales (Cnaf) is offering a CIFRE contract and prizes for scientific articles for the Revue des politiques sociales et familiales, which will focus on themes of interest to the Family branch of Social Security, such as family and social policies and family-related social phenomena. Deadline: March 1, 2022. 


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Call for papers "La fabrique de l'inclusion numérique des personnes âgées" of the Revue des Sciences Sociales until March 1, 2022 


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The savings and investment meetings will take place on December 7, 2021 in Paris. They will focus in particular on retirement savings: what role will they play in French people's savings in the future? 


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BILT Exchange Forum on New Skills and Competencies: Building the Future of TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training), December 7-9, 2021, organized by UNESCO, Céreq and the Human Resource Development Council of Botswana.


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Symposium of the Pasteur Institute, the PILEJE Foundation and the National Academy of Medicine on "Longevity: a revolution but at what price? on December 8th.


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AFSE and DG Treasury are organizing the seventh "Evaluation of Public Policies" conference at the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Recovery on Thursday, December 9, 2021. 


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The first LEM doctoral day will be held on January 27, 2022 at IESEG


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CREM, SMART LERECO laboratory and TEPP research federation are organising the 38th Journées de Microéconomie Appliquée (JMA) at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Rennes 1 on 2nd and 3rd June 2022. The deadline for submission of papers is 31th January 2022. 


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COR colloquium on 15 November 2021 "Is the COR too optimistic?


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3rd annual conference of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Démographie (HED) on 29 November 2021 from 8.45 am to 12 noon at the Centre des Colloques of the Campus Condorcet


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The 11th IFBAE congress will be held at the IGR-IAE Rennes on 23 and 24 June 2022 on the theme "Managing organisations in an uncertain context: what process and what practices?


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Insee, QuantCube, PSE, CANDRIAM and Société Générale create the Research Chair "Measuring the economy, nowcasting - beyond GDP". 


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Call for papers of the journal Gérontologie et société "Les métiers périphériques : Interactions, collaborations et professionnalisation". Deadline for submission: 28 February 2022. 


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Event of the Club Landoy, Maison de la Radio and TDTE Chair on "What new contract between generations?" on Tuesday 9 November 2021 at the Maison de la Radio


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The TDTE Chair is organizing a conference on October 25, 2021 on the theme "Making France a full activity society". It will take place from 9am to 6pm at the Hôtel de l'Industrie, 4 place Saint-Germain des Prés, 75006 Paris. 


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The workshop "Inverstors' behavior in equity crowdfunding" of the Faculty of Law, Economics and Management of the University of Angers, will take place on October 19, 2021. 


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Books, Articles & Working Papers

The OECD has just published its report "Rising from the COVID 19 crisis: Policy responses in the long-term care sector" in which they highlight that the long-term care sector was ill-prepared to deal with COVID 19; 40% of deaths due to covid-19 occurred in this sector (long-term care facilities or home care). The report gives recommendations to improve the sector's preparation for this type of shock: a higher staffing level will reduce covid-19 infections and the number of deaths. They recommend an update of the protocols for various scenarios, better coordination between the medical and social actors and better monitoring, with standardized data, of the strategies implemented. 


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Dherbécourt, Fack, Landais and Stantcheva have published a CAE note on "Rethinking inheritance". In this note, they note that inheritance is a determining factor in the constitution of wealth; it represents 60% of total wealth in France. However, it reinforces wealth inequalities and the magnitude is much higher than income inequalities. This paper proposes a reform of the taxation of inheritance through four pillars. 1. Improving the information system to better assess and manage inheritance-related reforms. 2. Implementing a policy of taxing the inheritance stream received by an individual over his or her lifetime. 3. Review the estate tax base, including reducing exemptions and waivers that have limited economic justification. 4. Create a capital guarantee for the bottom of the distribution. This reform, which would broaden the base and lower nominal rates, could reduce the estate tax for 99% of the population and still bring in additional tax revenue. 


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Ehrlich and Yin published "A cross-country comparison of old age financial readiness in Asian countries vs the United States: the case of Japan and the Republic of Korea" in the NBER. They compare the relative financial readiness of older households for retirement in Japan, the Republic of Korea and the United States. They observe several financial channels of support for the elderly: public and private pension plans, family support, and private financial portfolio management. They find that older Americans benefit from more developed and better funded public and private pension systems and risky financial portfolios. Financial and pension markets are less developed in Asian countries than in the US. Finally, the level of education and health of heads of households and the wealth of households have an impact on the holding of risky assets. 


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Freeman published an article in the NBER "Planning for the "Expected Unexpected": Work and Retirement in the US after the COVID-19 pandemic shock". In this article, Freeman argues that the pandemic caused the greatest loss of labour supply and an economic crisis that jeopardised long-term policies such as the financial sustainability of pension plans. The rescue plans, CARES and then ARPA, allowed a rapid and effective economic recovery. However, the pandemic will have had a lasting impact on the labour market, with the establishment of home-based work and the difficulty for people with long term covid to return to work. Freeman calls for effective planning for the future of work and retirement to go beyond trendy socio-economic analyses, to take into account unexpected shocks caused by natural circumstances. 


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Shayne, Garcia and Cowan published an article on the NBER, "The impact of school and childcare closures on labor market outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic" which assesses the impact of school closures on parental labor supply during the COVID-19 pandemic. They find that school closures have little impact on parents' work stoppages. But they have a significant impact on working full-time and on the number of hours worked. These effects are particularly concentrated among low-skilled parents who therefore find it more difficult to adjust their work to school closures. 


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In its note No. 77, the French Institute of Public Health (IPP) released a mapping of elderly people's loss of autonomy. This report revealed departmental differences in terms of prevalence, type of loss of autonomy and its onset at early ages. 


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Ameriks, Caplin, Lee, Shapiro and Tonetti published an article in the NBER on "Cognitive decline, limited awareness, imperfect agency and financial well-being." The researchers show that cognitive decline can lead to poor financial decisions among older Americans. It would therefore be appropriate to transfer financial control to a trusted agent as soon as cognitive decline begins. However, cognitive decline is a process that occurs unnoticed. The researchers then show that wealth holders transfer financial control too late and this can lead to a significant loss of financial well-being. 


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The CAE has published a note on "Skilled immigration: a visa for growth" in which Auriol and Rapoport note that immigration in France is, compared to other OECD countries, unskilled, undiversified and small in number. However, labor immigration, especially skilled immigration, could have considerable effects on economic growth in France in the long term. The economists therefore recommend, firstly, to centralize and systematize work visa applications from companies. Second, to evaluate the "talent passport" system and to develop it with a better evaluation of foreign diplomas. Secondly, they recommend improving the attractiveness of higher education for foreign students and facilitating the transition from education to employment. Finally, they propose a reform of France's migration policy to transform it into a points-based system, similar to the one implemented in Canada. 


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In "The Effect of Labor Market Shocks Across the Life Cycle", Salvanes et al. investigate the consequences of unfavorable labor market shocks, through mass layoffs and establishment shutdowns, on individuals' main life decisions. Responses to these shocks are heterogeneous between age groups: early in their careers, individuals tend to invest in human capital and move to new employment opportunities; mid-career, they tend to reduce their fertility rate and adjust their decisions regarding family formation; late in their careers, they permanently withdraw from the labor market and retire. Because of the diversity in the impact of these shocks, the authors conclude that the focus should no longer be on the average effects among workers over the life cycle, but rather on the timing of the shocks throughout their careers. 


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In the article "Are old regions less attractive? Internal labour migration in a context of population ageing", Paula Prenzel has investigated whether population ageing affects internal migration patterns. To this end, she has examined the likelihood of leaving a region as well as the destination choice for full-time employees in 326 German regions of different demographic profiles in 1997-2013. The study finds that the share of the older population in the home region is significantly correlated with the likelihood of migrating to another region. Furthermore, for mobile workers, results suggest that regions with higher proportions of older people are less likely to be chosen as destinations. This reflects a selective migration pattern that reinforces ageing phenoma and polarization of demographic structures.


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Fedotenkov and Vandeplas, in their paper "The Implications of Ageing for Business Dynamics", investigate whether shifts in demographic structure, notably ageing, can affect firm entry rates in the European Union. Findings indicate a positive effect of longer life expectancy on entry rates through several mechanisms: entrepreneurship, labor market participation and demand. Consequently, the authors highlight the relevance of public policies, particularly investment in health, in promoting business dynamism.


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The COR has published its monthly report "Retirees' wealth and the transmission of wealth" and shows that, contrary to economic theory, households continue to accumulate wealth during their retirement. 


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Böheim, Horvath, Leoni and Spielauer published in the NBER an article on "The Impact of Health and Education on Labor Force Participation in Aging Societies - Projections for the United States and Germany from a Dynamic Microsimulation". Based on a microsimulation model and within a context of demographic aging, the authors compare the labor force evolution between Germany and the United States. In the baseline scenario, projections show that the US labor force is set to increase by 16.2% among 15-74 year-olds over the period 2020-2060. On the other hand, the German labor force is projected to decline by 10.7% over the same period. Yet, by investigating various hypothetical scenarios, the authors highlight that healthcare and education policies are a fairly ambitious option for both countries to increase their employment levels and meet demographic aging challenges.


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Dora Costa has published an article in the NBER entitled "Health Shocks of the Father and Longevity of the Children's Children" in which she analyzes the intergenerational transmission of a paternal health shock. More specifically, the author seeks to measure the longevity, after 45 years, of grandchildren of former prisoners of the Civil War of 1861-65. The results show that the probability of dying at any age after 45 years for grandchildren of former prisoners of war, whose parents were born after the war, is 1.1 times higher than for grandchildren of non prisoners of war. Paternal ancestral conditions are thus just as important as intra-uterine or social factors in determining longevity of future generations.


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A report from the OECD, COVID-19 and Well-being: Life in the Pandemic, found that younger people have suffered more from the economic consequences of the pandemic than their elders. "The power of youth" website provides a collection of data and recommendations to ensure a strong and sustainable investment in education, employment and mental health for youth.  


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In issue no. 11 of Questions Politiques Sociales - Les brèves, La Caisse des Dépôts provides a complete statistical summary of the characteristics (age, regional and hierarchical distribution, size, etc.) of pensioners in the three branches of the French civil service in 2020. 


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France Stratégie has issued a note titled "Protection sociale : qui paie le coût du vieillissement ?" emphasizing the stabilization of social protection spending as a share of GDP over the last decade, despite persistent demographic aging. This is mainly explained by the slowdown - as a consequence of various reforms - in the amount of benefits received on average per capita over the age of 60 and by the diversification of funding resources giving greater weight to older people's contributions.


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OCIRP presented the results of a quantitative study conducted with Viavoice among private sector employees in France. It questioned employees who are caregivers on the number of hours of help, their difficulties and their needs. An index of well-being was modelled from responses to 12 questions on well-being at work - IBEA - Indice de Bien-Être des salariés Aidants. The study shows that there can be a whole typology of employee carers depending on the caring situation and the support from the company. 


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Ruhm published an article in the NBER entitled "Excess deaths in the United States during the first year of Covid-19". This study seeks to estimate the number of excess deaths due to the Covid-19 pandemic by better estimating the counterfactual number of baseline deaths that would have occurred in its absence. In the US, between March 2020 and February 2021, there were over 600,000 excess deaths and 83% are directly attributed to Covid-19. 


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Butcher, Moran and Watson published an article in the NBER on "Immigrant Labor and the institutionalization of the US-born Elderly". In this paper, the authors looked at the impact of immigration on the likelihood of the US-born elderly living in institutions. They are able to identify exogenous variation in immigration and find that a 10 percentage point increase in the foreign-born, less-educated workforce in a sparsely populated area reduces the institutionalization of the over-65s by 1.5 percentage points and the over-80s by 3.8 percentage points. An American, born in the USA, and aged over 65 in 2000 was 10% less likely to live in an institution than if immigration had remained at 1980 levels. This can be explained by the fact that immigration impacts on the availability and cost of home care services; carers, gardeners, housekeepers and ultimately reduces the cost of ageing to society. 


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The Conseil d'Orientation des Retraites (French pension guidance council) has reviewed its choice of long-term economic assumptions for its pension system projections. For its 2022 annual report, four productivity targets were used (0.7%, 1%, 1.3% and 1.6%). The long-term unemployment rate was estimated at 7%. 


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The UNCCAS presented its white paper on autonomy and presented its recommendations on several axes: fighting against social isolation and maintaining social ties, accompanying and supporting isolated caregivers, territorial coordination, staying in one's own home, social inclusion and the preventive intermediary offer. 


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The OECD has just published its 2021 report "Pension markets in focus" which shows that assets in retirement savings plans continued to grow in 2020, despite the Covid-19 health crisis. They represent more than $56 trillion worldwide and have therefore increased by 11% since 2019. This growth is due to an increase in the number of people with a retirement savings plan, increased contributions and positive investment returns. The report also compares the characteristics, commonalities and differences of public pension reserve funds. 


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The OECD has released its 2021 report "Health at a glance" and shows that Covid-19 has caused nearly 2.5 million additional deaths in OECD countries. Covid-19 also disrupted access to health care for other needs and had a significant impact on the mental health of people by more than doubling the prevalence of anxiety and depression in OECD countries. These findings point to the need to strengthen the resilience of our health care systems, including addressing the shortage of health care providers. Although health care spending has increased in OECD countries, it is still too heavily focused on curative rather than preventive care, including chronic disease factors (such as tobacco, alcohol, and obesity) that also increase the risk of dying from Covid-19.


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Céreq Bref n°413 published an article on "Les jeunes en situation de NEET : le rôle des compétences de base" written by Giret and Jongbloed. The authors state that diplomas and basic skills are necessary conditions to avoid NEET situations but not sufficient. On the other hand, the absence of a minimum level of basic skills is penalising for young people. 


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Meyerhoefer et al published an article in the Journal of Dental Research on "Dental care use, edentulism and systemic health among older adults". Using data from the 1992 to 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, they looked at the relationship between dental care use and recurrence of chronic diseases. They found that having dental care in the past two years was associated with a 2.7% reduction in the likelihood of being diagnosed with a heart condition and a 5.3% to 11.6% reduction in experiencing a stroke. 


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Coile published in the NBER "The geography of retirement" in which she uses data from the US Census and the American Community Survey to look at differences in old-age employment rates across geographic areas. She finds that in areas of commuting, high age employment rates vary greatly. Low employment areas are characterised by a less educated population, more diversity, more low-wage jobs, less access to health care and lower public spending. 


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Hanushek et al published an article on "The Intergenerational transmission of cognitive skills: an investigation of the causal impact of families on student outcomes" in the NBER. Using Dutch survey and register data, the authors show a causal link between the cognitive skills of parents and those of their children. 


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The DIAL laboratory has published its 62nd newsletter DIALOGUE which reports on the first virtual International Conference on Development Economics (ICDE 2021) organised by the Dial, GREThA and LAREFI. 


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Bénédicte Apouey published an article "What does 'ageing well' mean?" in the journal Retraite et société. The researcher interviewed 1,700 members, aged between 40 and 84, of a mutual health insurance company in 2016 and asked them about their vision of ageing well. The four components of ageing well are: satisfaction with health, financial situation, family life and marriage. It shows that ageing well is a multidimensional concept that can also vary according to social background. Thus, seniors with a high social position favour satisfaction with health, couple life, social life and social activities. While seniors with lower social positions favour satisfaction with housing or the living environment.


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The IPP has published a note on "Women and men are equally likely to be carers for their dependent spouse, but the nature of their help differs" written by Léa Toulemon. It shows that women and men are equally likely to help their dependent spouse at the same age and with the same needs. However, women are more likely to perform acts related to physical care (dressing, washing) and men more likely to perform acts outside the home (shopping). 


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The Institute for Longevity, Ageing and Aging has published its 21st newsletter on "Ageing of people with disabilities". This newsletter offers several articles to decipher this phenomenon. 


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Marc Nabeth has just published a book on "Inclusive insurance" with Les Essentiels de l'Argus de l'assurance. This book aims to think about insurance differently, to help people, especially when they are most vulnerable. It presents the conditions for success and inclusive insurance products based on operational missions and testimonies of vulnerable populations in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and France. Preface by François-Xavier Albouy. 


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