"C’est injustice de voir qu’un père vieux, cassé et demi - mort jouisse seul, à un coin du foyer, des biens qui suffiraient à l’avancement et entretien de plusieurs enfants, et qu’il les laisse cependant, par faute de moyens, perdre leurs meilleures années sans se pousser au service public et connaissance des hommes." Les Essais II, Montaigne

Le Réseau EIDLL "Économie Internationale de la Longévité", créé en 2018, regroupe 26 centres de recherche et 4 institutions affiliées en économie du vieillissement pour contribuer au développement de la recherche et des échanges sur le sujet.

Plus d'informations : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll

"It is unjust to see an aged father, broken (or in his dotage) and only half alive, stuck in his chimney-corner with the absolute possession of enough wealth to help and maintain several children, allowing them all this time to waste their best years without means of advancement in the public service and of making themselves better known." Les Essais II, Montaigne

The "International Longevity Economics" (EIDLL) Network was created in 2018. It gathers 26 research centres and 4 affiliated institutions in ageing econoomics. Its aim is to favour exchanges and foster research on ageing economics.

More at : http://www.tdte.fr/research-area/presentation/reseau-eidll


January 21, 2020

Debates & News

Le Mans University is organizing a sustainable development week from 10 to 15 February 2020 which brings together conferences, workshops and a village of alternatives and will give the floor to researchers from the University.


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GATE organizes the 7th edition of the IMEBESS (International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences) conference May 28-30, 2020 in Lyon (France)



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Sixth international conference of the Network for Studies on Age, Citizenship and Socio-Economic Integration (REIACTIS) will take place in Metz from February 4 to 6 and will focus on "Inclusive and advanced age society"


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Conference "Ageing Society, a turning point in Human History" organized by Chaire "Transitions démographiques, Transitions économiques" on the February 6th, 2020 in partnership with Caisse des Dépôts


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The "Capturing inequalities" seminar organized by CITERES (University of Tours) will be held on Thursday, January 30th, 2020 and from 1:30 to 5:30 pm. The session is co-organized by Gulcin Erdi, Martin Lamotte, Anna Perraudin and Nora Semmoud.



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The Symposium "The Power to Act in Social Centers. Forms of engagement, politicization and discrimination ”organized by the Federation of Social Centers of the Center-Val de Loire Region and the University of Tours and Orleans will take place on January 9 and 10, 2020 at the Sanitas Life Center in Tours.



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19th Journée Louis-André Gerard-Varet - International conference in public economics - will take place at Aix-Marseille School of Economics on June 11-12th, 2020. Deadline for the paper submission: February 3rd, 2020.


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11th Annual Hedge Fund and Private Equity Research Conference organized by House of Finance of Paris-Dauphine University on the 16-17th January.



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The Foundation of the Academy of Medicine organizes on the 13th January from 14h to 18h the first participative debate of its conference "Society and Aging" intitled "Demography and Economy" in partnership with the Chaire "Transitions démographiques, Transitions économiques".

Inscription via email: vieillissementetsociete@fam.fr


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PSE is glad to welcome the Paris-London Public Economics Conference co-organized by Sciences Po - Department of Economics, London School of Economics (LSE), Institut des Politiques Publiques (IPP), University College London (UCL), Institute For Fiscal Studies (IFS) and PSE - Paris School of Economics. The event will take place on the Jourdan campus from December 12 to December 14, 2019.


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PSE (Paris School of Economics) Annual Conference on Digital Issues: "Digital Transformations" on the 18-19th December 2019 at PSE.


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On November 25th, 2019, from 6 to 7:30 pm, join us for the presentation of the book “Les origines du populisme”, in the presence of Yann Algan, Elizabeth Beasley, and Daniel Cohen at PSE (Paris School of Economics).


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The OECD, the CEPII (the French Research Center in International Economics), and their partners from the University of Lille (LEM), Paris School of Economics, Fondazione Rodolfo De Benedetti, University of Luxembourg and IRES (Université Catholique de Louvain) are jointly organizing the 9th Annual Conference on "Immigration in OECD Countries" on December 12-13, 2019


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Scientific day organized by the Plateforme Nationale de la Recherche sur la fin de vie on the 4th of December 2019 at the Ministry of Solidarities and Health


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AFD conference "Inequality and redistribution in low and middle-income countries" on Monday 4 November


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Annual conference of the Conseil d'orientation des retraites (COR) "Women and retirement" on the 2sd December 2019 from 9.30 am to 6 pm


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Seminar about "Fertility and Labor Market Responses to Reductions of Mortality" presented by Selma Walther, Sonia Bhalotra et Atheen Venkataramani and organized by LEM MOF-ADP at the University of Lille on the 22nd October of 2019.


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The next Biennale organizes by the Céreq will take place on the 19th of March 2020 in Paris and the subject will be: "Does the company enhance your skills ?"


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Group VYV organizes a seminar entitled "Longevity, a new challenge for health insurance" on the next 23rd of October.


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Lecture "Why do Stock Market Jump (and Trump's impact on Markets) ?" by Nicholas Bloom professor at Stanford University on the 5th of December at the Paris School of Economics (PSE).


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The CEPREMAP (Centre pour la recherche économique et ses applications) and the IPP(Institut des Politiques Publiques) will host at Paris School of Economics (PSE) a conference about the evaluation of the 2020 budget. Three papers will be presented followed by a panel discussion.


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Conference organized by the CNAM (National Conservatory of arts and works)


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Conference "Active ageing!" organized by TDTE Chaire, Aésio Group and Caisse des Dépôts, on October 15th in Paris


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Conference in Maison de la Chimie, Paris, "Seniors and societies meetings : how to tackle the challenge of demographic ageing ?", on October 8th, organized by M&M Conseil


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International Workshop "Putting Well-being metrics into Policy Action" organized by OECD Conference Centre, in Paris, October 3rd and 4th


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Conference "Dynamics and social disruptions of longevity" organized by Silver Valley and CNAV Ile-de France, on September 27th


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Books, Articles & Working Papers

Martin Ravallion critically assesses prevailing measures of global poverty. A welfarist interpretation of global poverty lines is augmented by the idea of normative functionings, the cost of which varies across countries. In this light, current absolute measures are seen to ignore important social effects on welfare, while popular strongly-relative measures ignore absolute levels of living. It is argued that a new hybrid measure is called for, combining absolute and weakly-relative measures consistent with how national lines vary across countries. Illustrative calculations indicate that we are seeing a falling incidence of poverty globally over the last 30 years. This is mainly due to lower absolute poverty counts in the developing world. While fewer people are poor by the global absolute standard, more are poor by the country-specific relative standard. The vast bulk of poverty, both absolute and relative, is now found in the developing world. 


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David G. Blanchflower draws systematic comparisons across 109 data files and 132 countries of the relationship between well-being, variously defined, and age. He produces 444 significant country estimates with controls, so these are ceteris paribus effects, and find evidence of a well-being U-shape in age in one hundred and thirty-two countries, including ninety-five developing countries, controlling for education, marital and labor force status. I also frequently find it without any controls at all. There is additional evidence from an array of attitudinal questions that were worded slightly differently than standard happiness or life satisfaction questions such as satisfaction with an individual's financial situation. Averaging across the 257 individual country estimates from developing countries gives an age minimum of 48.2 for well-being and doing the same across the 187 country estimates for advanced countries gives a similar minimum of 47.2. The happiness curve is everywhere.


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In many models, economic growth is driven by people discovering new ideas. These models typically assume either a constant or a growing population. However, in high income countries today, fertility is already below its replacement rate: women are having fewer than two children on average. It is a distinct possibility — highlighted in the recent book, “Empty Planet” — that global population will decline rather than stabilize in the long run. What happens to economic growth when population growth turns negative?


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David G. Blanchflower examines the relationship between unhappiness and age using data from six well-being data files on nearly ten million respondents across forty European countries and the United States. He uses fifteen different individual characterizations of unhappiness including despair; anxiety; loneliness; sadness; strain, depression and bad nerves; phobias and panic; being downhearted; having restless sleep; losing confidence in oneself; not being able to overcome difficulties; being under strain; feeling a failure; feeling left out; feeling tense; and thinking of yourself as a worthless person. He also analyzes responses to two more general attitudinal measures regarding the situation in the respondent's country as well as on the future of the world. Responses to all these unhappiness questions show a, ceteris paribus, inverted U-shape in age, with controls and many also do so without them. The resiliency of communities left behind by globalization was diminished by the Great Recession which made it especially hard for the vulnerable undergoing a midlife crisis with few resources, to withstand the shock.


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The American population is aging and changes in the population’s age structure are leading to an aging of the nation’s workforce. In addition, changes to age-specific participation rates are exacerbating the aging of the national labor force. An important challenge for firms and organizations is how does workforce aging affect labor costs, productivity and the sustainability of the organization. Robert L. Clark and Beth M. Ritter examine employer responses to workforce aging including changes in retirement policies, modification in working conditions, the adoption of phased retirement plans, and reforming other employee benefits.


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COR (Retirement Orientation Council) publishes its monthly file for December 2019: "Consumption, savings, and use of credit for retirees". In addition to regular monitoring of the standard of living of retirees, this dossier examines how retirees distribute their disposable income between consumption and savings, by also shedding light on the financial aid paid by retirees to their children as well as on the indebtedness of retirees.



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Wealth is far from being a homogeneous and monolithic concept. Wealth can be positive or negative (e.g. assets versus debts), more or less accessible (e.g. bank accounts versus housing wealth), and more or less time-constrained (e.g. cars versus bonds and mutual funds). These different forms of wealth are likely to influence in different ways the extent to which individuals are satisfied with their life. It is also likely that this influence varies across countries. In this chapter, Gaël Brulé and Laura Ravazzini characterize four forms of wealth following two axes (positive/negative, mobile/immobile) and link them with the Subjective Well-Being (SWB) of the elderly in Europe. They find that positive mobile wealth is more strongly related to life satisfaction than positive immobile wealth. Negative mobile wealth is also more significantly related to life satisfaction than negative immobile wealth. Possible explanations are discussed using cultural theories.


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Claudio Borio, Piti Disyatat and Phurichai Rungcharoenkitkul take a critical look at the conceptual and empirical underpinnings of prevailing explanations for low real (inflation-adjusted) interest rates over long horizons and finds them incomplete. The role of monetary policy, and its interaction with the financial cycle in particular, deserve greater attention. By linking booms and busts, the financial cycle generates important path dependencies that give rise to intertemporal policy trade-offs. Policy today constrains policy tomorrow. Far from being neutral, the policy regime can exert a persistent influence on the economy’s evolution, including on the real interest rate. This raises serious conceptual and practical questions about the use of the natural interest rate as a monetary policy guidepost. In developing the analysis, the paper also provides a specific critique of the safe asset shortage hypothesis – a hypothesis that has gained considerable popularity in recent years.


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The law of September 5, 2018 makes the improvement of employee's skills and the security of professional careers a central issue. Organized training is a major tool for responding to this. However, it does not constitute a homogeneous whole. The Defis survey, through the analysis of training titles, provides us with information for the first time on the content of nearly 6 million training courses taken between January 2014 and June 2015 by employees and offers an unprecedented look at the logic use of training in companies.



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The employment rate for workers 55 and over has been increasing across the world for the last decade. This creates opportunities for employers to diversify their workforce and retain valuable knowledge and skills, while at the same time posing the challenge of rising labor costs and blocked opportunities for younger workers. This study summarizes in layperson’s terms the economic tradeoffs facing organizations as they design the optimal age structure of employees, as well as surveying recent research on how older workers fit into organizations. Empirical studies show that whereas wage and benefit costs increase with age, there is no conclusive evidence that productivity increases as well. Studies using macroeconomic data find no evidence that older workers block opportunities for the young, but two recent papers using a more disaggregated approach show that firms treat older and younger workers as substitutes. A key challenge facing older workers is the decline over the last 20 years in the odds of becoming a new hire. Although the turnover rate for older workers is much lower than for other age groups, employers have concerns about accommodating their work environment and work schedule preferences. Resume studies show age discrimination also plays a factor, especially for women. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research, including interindustry and international comparisons of microeconomic data on employment by age group and studies that take a close look within organizations that have engaged in innovative activities to hire or retain more older workers.


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John F. Helliwell summarizes the philosophical and empirical grounds for giving a primary role to the evaluations that people make of the quality of their lives. These evaluations permit comparisons among communities, regions, nations and population subgroups, enable the estimation of the relative importance of various sources of happiness, and provide a well-being lens to aid the choice of public policies to support well-being. Available results expose the primacy of social determinants of happiness, and especially the power of generosity and other positive social connections to improve the levels, distribution and sustainability of well-being.


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Since the early 1990’s the growth rates of the four largest European economies—France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom—have slowed. This persistent slowdown suggests a low-frequency structural change is at work. A combination of longer individual life expectancies and declining fertility have led to gradually ageing populations. Demographic change affects economic growth directly through households savings and labor supply decisions and also growth indirectly through the pension systems and the need to fund them. Tax increases to balance budgets will impose additional distortions to individual factor-supply choices. Thomas F. Cooley, Espen Henriksen and Charlie Nusbaum quantify the growth effects from aging and from the financing of public pensions, and we estimate the welfare gains from pension reforms.


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Thomas C. Buchmueller, Helen G. Levy and Robert G. Valletta examine how a key provision of the Affordable Care Act--the expansion of Medicaid eligibility--affected health insurance coverage, access to care, and labor market transitions of unemployed workers. Comparing trends in states that implemented the Medicaid expansion to those that did not, they find that the ACA Medicaid expansion substantially increased insurance coverage and improved access to health care among unemployed workers. They then test whether this strengthening of the safety net affected transitions from unemployment to employment or out of the labor force. They find no meaningful statistical evidence in support of moral hazard effects that reduce job finding or labor force attachment.


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The authors study the relationships between ageist stereotypes – as reflected in the language used in job ads – and age discrimination in hiring, exploiting the text of job ads and differences in callbacks to older and younger job applicants from a previous resume (correspondence study) field experiment (Neumark, Burn, and Button, 2019). This analysis uses methods from computational linguistics and machine learning to directly identify, in a field-experiment setting, ageist stereotypes that underlie age discrimination in hiring. They find evidence that language related to stereotypes of older workers sometimes predicts discrimination against older workers. For men, their evidence points most strongly to age stereotypes about physical ability, communication skills, and technology predicting age discrimination, and for women, age stereotypes about communication skills and technology. The method they develop provides a framework for applied researchers analyzing textual data, highlighting the usefulness of various computer science techniques for empirical economics research.


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This theoretical work by Morten Nyborg Støstad is interested in this problem and reveals how certain economic models are affected if inequalities concern the whole population. Despite the political challenges they represent, the societal effects of inequality are ignored in almost all basic economic models. For example, the uneven distribution of income may be the cause of populism and the social unrest seen in the United States, Chile and Western Europe. Health consequences, crime rate, innovation and many other variables could also be influenced by inequality, both positively and negatively.



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A key goal of a higher minimum wage is income redistribution towards low-income families. Existing research on the minimum wage focuses on the impact on affected workers, but is silent on the incomes of the owners of businesses who pay for a higher minimum wage. Higher minimum wages will do more to redistribute income if the owners of businesses who pay the higher minimum are at the top of the income distribution, and conversely if minimum wage employers hare relatively low incomes, the redistributional effects are weakened. The authors study evidence on this question using a unique administrative dataset on the universe of tax records for Israel, in the period surrounding a large minimum wage increase. They find that the minimum wage hike reduced profits of companies, with minimum-wage intensive companies bearing the bulk of the cost and adjusting their workforces more aggressively, and profits declining more for lower-income business owners. Moreover, owners of businesses with higher shares of minimum-wage workers ranked at the bottom of the income distribution of business owners, and their incomes were comparable to those of mid-to-high level workers. In most cases, spouses of business owners earn less than the owners while spouses of minimum-wage workers earn more, further reducing the redistributive effect of the minimum wage increase.


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Education at a Glance provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems across OECD countries and a number of partner economies.



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Aesio Group, with the collaboration of the TDTE Chair, published recently Aesio Longevity Booklets. These booklets suggest ten propositions and initiatives in order to make successful the longevity society. The purposes of these initiatives are multiple: make possible the access to an adapted ageing life-course, make prevention and the concern for self a global priority to improve life expectancy in good health. And finally, it promotes elderlies' engagement which is a factor of inclusion and well-being, and delays loss of autonomy.

Each topic introduces innovative experiments to rethink our society and constitutes a set of good practices to ensure an ageing well future for our grandparents.


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Ian Burn, Patrick Button, Luis Felipe Munguia Corella and David Neumark study the relationships between ageist stereotypes – as reflected in the language used in job ads – and age discrimination in hiring, exploiting the text of job ads and differences in callbacks to older and younger job applicants from a previous resume (correspondence study) field experiment (Neumark, Burn, and Button, 2019). Their analysis uses methods from computational linguistics and machine learning to directly identify, in a field-experiment setting, ageist stereotypes that underlie age discrimination in hiring. They find evidence that language related to stereotypes of older workers sometimes predicts discrimination against older workers. For men, evidence points most strongly to age stereotypes about physical ability, communication skills, and technology predicting age discrimination, and for women, age stereotypes about communication skills and technology.


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Since the early 1990’s the growth rates of the four largest European economies—France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom—have slowed. This persistent slowdown suggests a low-frequency structural change is at work. A combination of longer individual life expectancies and declining fertility have led to gradually ageing populations. Demographic change affects economic growth directly through households savings and labor supply decisions and also growth indirectly through the pension systems and the need to fund them. Tax increases to balance budgets will impose additional distortions to individual factor-supply choices. The authors quantify the growth effects from aging and from the financing of public pensions, and they estimate the welfare gains from pension reforms.


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In 2015 the Italian government adopted an important reform of the labor market, named "Jobs Act".This reform introduces a 3-year exemption from social security charges for permanent hires, including for the conversion of fixed-term contracts into permanent contracts. It also introduces universal unemployment insurance on the model of other European countries.



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Cooperate to better orient: zoom on the local practices of the CEP actors. The goal of career development consulting (CEP) is to provide personalized support for any worker, whether employed or not, in their professional development project. Its success implies developing exchanges between operators who are often divided into fields of action. Although the CEP seems to have intensified cooperation at national level, this is not always the case at the regional and local levels. While in 2020 the regional landscape of the operators responsible for the CEP evolves, a Céreq study looks at the diversity of practices at the local level.



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Health at a Glance compares key indicators for population health and health system performance across OECD members, candidate and partner countries. It highlights how countries differ in terms of the health status and health-seeking behaviour of their citizens; access to and quality of health care; and the resources available for health. The analysis is based on the latest comparable data across 80 indicators, with data coming from official national statistics, unless otherwise stated. Alongside indicator-by-indicator analysis, an overview chapter summarises the comparative performance of countries and major trends, including how much health spending is associated with staffing, access, quality and health outcomes. This edition also includes a special focus on patient-reported outcomes and experiences, with a thematic chapter on measuring what matters for people-centred health systems.


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Through the coordination of work of a team of analysts in twelve countries for nearly twenty years, the International Social Security (ISS) project has used the vast differences in social security programs across countries as a natural laboratory to study the effects of retirement program provisions on the labor force participation of older persons. This analysis is the seventh phase of the ongoing project, and it is focused on the health capacity to work at older ages.


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The authors conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the direct healthcare costs of treating older adults with diagnosed Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) within private Medicare managed care plans.


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The first contributions of the follow-up of the Generation 2010:

What has happened to the young people who exit the education system in 2010, at every level of the formation, with or without a degree? What can the 7 first years of active life teach us about the structural transformations of the labor market? How the difficult environment has weighted on their career path? The latest results of the Generation 2010 survey of the Cereq give us information about the professional integration of a more and more graduate youth and who see the gap between the diploma level widening.


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Due to population ageing, weakening of family-based support, and other factors, old-age income support is becoming an issue of growing importance throughout Asia. This is especially true in East Asia and Southeast Asia where the demographic transition is already well under way. This paper provides a broad overview of the current state of the pension systems in People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam; diagnoses the pension systems; and identifies their major structural weaknesses. Key systemic failures were found to be low coverage, inadequate benefits, lack of financial sustainability, and insufficient support for the elderly poor. The paper concludes with some specific policy directions for pension reform to strengthen the capacity of Asian pension systems in delivering economic security for the looming large and growing army of the elderly in the region.


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The demographic dividend that contributed substantially to economic growth in developing Asia in the past is dissipating. Population aging affects growth through savings, capital accumulation, labor force participation, and total factor productivity. Donghyun Park and Kwanho Shin examined the impact of aging on those four channels in 12 developing Asian economies that collectively make up the bulk of the region’s population and output. We then made projections about the effects of demographic change on the economic growth of the 12 from 2011 to 2020 and from 2021 to 2030. Their results indicate that there will be a sizable adverse economic impact where population aging is more advanced.


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Working consistently through one’s fifties and early sixties is key to attaining retirement security. However, workers also need access to retirement plans – so they can continue to accumulate resources – and health insurance – so they can avoid withdrawing assets in the event of a health shock. Yet, despite the fact that a large literature focuses on nontraditional jobs that often lack these benefits, it is unclear how older workers use these jobs and what the consequences are. This paper uses the Health and Retirement Study to identify nontraditional jobs and relies on sequence analysis to explore how workers ages 50-62 use them. The results suggest that the majority of nontraditional jobs are used by workers consistently and that fewer workers use these jobs briefly or as a bridge to retirement. In the end, workers consistently in nontraditional jobs end up with less retirement income and are also worse off by a more holistic measure of well-being – the incidence of depression. Given this situation, expanding benefits to workers in non-traditional jobs could increase their well-being in retirement.


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In a global warming context, we pay increasing attention to the carbon dioxide emissions linked to road transport. In this article, Camille Blaudin de Thé, Benjamin Carantino and Miren Lafourcade study the impact of the urban form and the size of the cities on carbon emissions coming from the traffic in France. Using the data of the "Budget Families" conducted by the INSEE in 2001 and 2006, they estimate that the households living in peri-urban or rural areas consume, on year average, 400 liters of fuel more than the households living in city centers, all others things being equal. If the carbon footprint of the households is indeed smaller in the denser area, a "durable" urbanization policy doesn't have to be reduced to a simple cities compaction. The authors show that very different urban forms can lead to the same carbon footprint of households.


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According to the INSEE ", 4 million elderlies with loss of autonomy would be identified in 2050" in France: in this paper, the INSEE gives its first estimations and the repartition in France of this person with loss of autonomy.


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"Everyday in France, almost 11 million people take care of an aged, sick or disabled relative." In her book "Aidants, ces invisibles", Doctor Hélène Rossinot talks about the sujbect of caregivers, their place and status in the society, their funding or the fragile relationship between caregiver-patient-medicine staff.


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"This paper presents results based on a survey fielded in the RAND American Life Panel that queried older workers about their current, desired, and expected job characteristics, and about how certain job characteristics would affect their retirement. Having access to flexible work hours was found to be the most consistent predictor of retirement expectations. For example, we estimated that the fraction of individuals working after age 70 would be 32.2% if all workers had flexible hours, while the fraction working would be 17.2% if none had the option of flexible hours. We further found that job stress, physical and cognitive job demands, the option to telecommute, and commuting times were also strong predictors of retirement expectations. By comparing workers’ current job characteristics with those that individuals desire, we show that people would like preretirement jobs to be less cognitively and physically demanding and more sociable compared to their current jobs. We also find that most workers worry about their health and the demands of their jobs when they think about their future work trajectory, but relatively few were worried that their employers would retain them. Having access to part-time jobs, and expected longevity were less important predictors of retirement."


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"The U.S. economy has recently experienced two, seemingly unrelated, phenomena: a large increase in post-retirement life expectancy and a major expansion in securitization and shadow banking activities. We argue they are intimately related. Agents rely on financial intermediaries to save for post-retirement consumption. When expecting to live longer, they rely more heavily on intermediaries that use securitization, with riskier but higher returns. A quantitative evaluation of the model shows the potential of the demographic transition to account for a boom in credit and output, but only when it triggers a more extensive use of securitization and shadow banking."


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This resource for NHS and public health professionals focuses on taking a life course approach to the prevention of ill health and explores the evidence base for this approach. The resource signposts to evidence-based interventions and tools, as well as to evaluation and monitoring techniques.


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Working Paper: "Impact of Defaults in Retirement Saving Plans: Public Employee Plans", Robert L. Clark, Denis Pelletier, the National Bureau of Economic Research


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Following the 2019 international Symposium, we have the pleasure to share the proceedings with you. They present the discussions and propositions made along the Symposium. Please find them attached below (on the TDTE Chair website).

Have a good reading


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